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Изучающее чтение с элементами аннотирования

Тема: Изучающее чтение с элементами аннотирования

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Neoclassical Economics
1. The most remarkable feature of neoclassical economics is that it reduces many broad categories of market phenomena to considerations of individual choice and, in this way, suggests that the science of economics can be firmly grounded on the basic individual act of subjectively choosing among alternatives.
2. Neoclassical economics began with the so-called marginalist revolution in value theory that emerged toward the end of the nineteenth century. Strictly speaking, neoclassical economics is not a school of thought (in the sense of a well-defined group of economists following a single great master) but more a loose amalgam of subschools of thought, each revolving around such acknowledged masters as Alfred Marshall in England, Leon Walras in France, and Carl Menger in Austria.
3. In England there was established the Cambridge school – a variant of neoclassical economics that stressed continuity with the past achievements of the classical school. In France, the general equilibrium school was founded in 1874. This subschool investigated the mathematical conditions under which all markets could be in equilibrium simultaneously. The Austrian subschool focused on the essential problems of economic organization.
4. What these subschools have in common is the importance they attach to explaining the coordinating features of market processes in terms of plans and subjective evaluations carried out by individuals in the market subject to the constraints of technological knowledge, social custom and practice, and scarcity of resources.

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Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия в тексте запрашиваемой информации

Тема: Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия в тексте запрашиваемой информации

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Neoclassical Economics
1. The most remarkable feature of neoclassical economics is that it reduces many broad categories of market phenomena to considerations of individual choice and, in this way, suggests that the science of economics can be firmly grounded on the basic individual act of subjectively choosing among alternatives.
2. Neoclassical economics began with the so-called marginalist revolution in value theory that emerged toward the end of the nineteenth century. Strictly speaking, neoclassical economics is not a school of thought (in the sense of a well-defined group of economists following a single great master) but more a loose amalgam of subschools of thought, each revolving around such acknowledged masters as Alfred Marshall in England, Leon Walras in France, and Carl Menger in Austria.
3. In England there was established the Cambridge school – a variant of neoclassical economics that stressed continuity with the past achievements of the classical school. In France, the general equilibrium school was founded in 1874. This subschool investigated the mathematical conditions under which all markets could be in equilibrium simultaneously. The Austrian subschool focused on the essential problems of economic organization.
4. What these subschools have in common is the importance they attach to explaining the coordinating features of market processes in terms of plans and subjective evaluations carried out by individuals in the market subject to the constraints of technological knowledge, social custom and practice, and scarcity of resources.

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Изучающее чтение с элементами анализа информации

Тема: Изучающее чтение с элементами анализа информации

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Neoclassical Economics
1. The most remarkable feature of neoclassical economics is that it reduces many broad categories of market phenomena to considerations of individual choice and, in this way, suggests that the science of economics can be firmly grounded on the basic individual act of subjectively choosing among alternatives.
2. Neoclassical economics began with the so-called marginalist revolution in value theory that emerged toward the end of the nineteenth century. Strictly speaking, neoclassical economics is not a school of thought (in the sense of a well-defined group of economists following a single great master) but more a loose amalgam of subschools of thought, each revolving around such acknowledged masters as Alfred Marshall in England, Leon Walras in France, and Carl Menger in Austria.
3. In England there was established the Cambridge school – a variant of neoclassical economics that stressed continuity with the past achievements of the classical school. In France, the general equilibrium school was founded in 1874. This subschool investigated the mathematical conditions under which all markets could be in equilibrium simultaneously. The Austrian subschool focused on the essential problems of economic organization.
4. What these subschools have in common is the importance they attach to explaining the coordinating features of market processes in terms of plans and subjective evaluations carried out by individuals in the market subject to the constraints of technological knowledge, social custom and practice, and scarcity of resources.

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Изучающее чтение с элементами анализа информации

Тема: Изучающее чтение с элементами анализа информации

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Market Economies
1. In a true market economy the government plays no role in the management of the economy, the government does not intervene in it. The system is based on private enterprise with private ownership of the means of production and private supplies of capital, which can be defined as surplus income available for investment in new business activities. Workers are paid wages by employers according to how skilled they are and how many firms wish to employ them. They spend their wages on the products and services they need. Consumers are willing to spend more on products and services, which are favoured. Firms producing these goods will make more profits and this will persuade more firms to produce these particular goods rather than less favoured ones.
2. Thus, in a market economy consumers decide what is to be produced. Consumers will be willing to pay high prices for products they particularly desire. Firms, which are privately owned, see the opportunity of increased profits and produce the new fashionable and favoured products.
3. Such a system is, at first view, very attractive. The economy adjusts automatically to meet changing demands. No planners have to be employed, which allows more resources to be available for production. Firms tend to be highly competitive in such an environment. New advanced products and low prices are good ways to increase sales and profits. Since all firms are privately owned they try to make the largest profits possible.

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Изучающее чтение с элементами аннотирования

Тема: Изучающее чтение с элементами аннотирования

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Market Economies
1. In a true market economy the government plays no role in the management of the economy, the government does not intervene in it. The system is based on private enterprise with private ownership of the means of production and private supplies of capital, which can be defined as surplus income available for investment in new business activities. Workers are paid wages by employers according to how skilled they are and how many firms wish to employ them. They spend their wages on the products and services they need. Consumers are willing to spend more on products and services, which are favoured. Firms producing these goods will make more profits and this will persuade more firms to produce these particular goods rather than less favoured ones.
2. Thus, in a market economy consumers decide what is to be produced. Consumers will be willing to pay high prices for products they particularly desire. Firms, which are privately owned, see the opportunity of increased profits and produce the new fashionable and favoured products.
3. Such a system is, at first view, very attractive. The economy adjusts automatically to meet changing demands. No planners have to be employed, which allows more resources to be available for production. Firms tend to be highly competitive in such an environment. New advanced products and low prices are good ways to increase sales and profits. Since all firms are privately owned they try to make the largest profits possible.

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Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия в тексте запрашиваемой информации

Тема: Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия в тексте запрашиваемой информации

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Market Economies
1. In a true market economy the government plays no role in the management of the economy, the government does not intervene in it. The system is based on private enterprise with private ownership of the means of production and private supplies of capital, which can be defined as surplus income available for investment in new business activities. Workers are paid wages by employers according to how skilled they are and how many firms wish to employ them. They spend their wages on the products and services they need. Consumers are willing to spend more on products and services, which are favoured. Firms producing these goods will make more profits and this will persuade more firms to produce these particular goods rather than less favoured ones.
2. Thus, in a market economy consumers decide what is to be produced. Consumers will be willing to pay high prices for products they particularly desire. Firms, which are privately owned, see the opportunity of increased profits and produce the new fashionable and favoured products.
3. Such a system is, at first view, very attractive. The economy adjusts automatically to meet changing demands. No planners have to be employed, which allows more resources to be available for production. Firms tend to be highly competitive in such an environment. New advanced products and low prices are good ways to increase sales and profits. Since all firms are privately owned they try to make the largest profits possible.

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Изучающее чтение с выделением главных компонентов содержания текста

Тема: Изучающее чтение с выделением главных компонентов содержания текста

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Market Economies
1. In a true market economy the government plays no role in the management of the economy, the government does not intervene in it. The system is based on private enterprise with private ownership of the means of production and private supplies of capital, which can be defined as surplus income available for investment in new business activities. Workers are paid wages by employers according to how skilled they are and how many firms wish to employ them. They spend their wages on the products and services they need. Consumers are willing to spend more on products and services, which are favoured. Firms producing these goods will make more profits and this will persuade more firms to produce these particular goods rather than less favoured ones.
2. Thus, in a market economy consumers decide what is to be produced. Consumers will be willing to pay high prices for products they particularly desire. Firms, which are privately owned, see the opportunity of increased profits and produce the new fashionable and favoured products.
3. Such a system is, at first view, very attractive. The economy adjusts automatically to meet changing demands. No planners have to be employed, which allows more resources to be available for production. Firms tend to be highly competitive in such an environment. New advanced products and low prices are good ways to increase sales and profits. Since all firms are privately owned they try to make the largest profits possible.

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Профессиональная лексика

Тема: Профессиональная лексика

Because of continual price increases, the ______ of the pound has fallen in recent years.

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Термины (Дефиниции)

Тема: Термины (Дефиниции)

The difference between the buying and selling price of goods is …

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Изучающее чтение с выделением главных компонентов содержания текста

Тема: Изучающее чтение с выделением главных компонентов содержания текста

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Channels of Marketing
1. Individual consumers and corporate buyers are aware that thousands of goods and services are available through a very large number of diverse channel outlets. What they may not be well aware of is the fact that the channel structure, or the set of institutions, agencies, and establishments through which the product must move to get to them, can be amazingly complex.
2. Usually, institutions specializing in manufacturing, wholesaling, retailing, and many other areas join forces in marketing channel arrangements to make possible the delivery of goods to industrial users or customers and to final consumers. The same is true for the marketing of services. For example, in the case of health care delivery, hospitals, laboratories, insurance companies, and drugstores combine efforts in an organized channel arrangement to ensure the delivery of a critical service.
3. Therefore, marketing channels can be viewed as sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. Not only do marketing channels satisfy demand by supplying goods and services at the right place, quantity, quality, and price, but they also stimulate demand through the promotional activities of the units (e.g., retailers, manufacturers’ representatives, sales offices, and wholesalers) comprising them.
4. The major focus of marketing channel management is on delivery. Producers of goods (including manufacturers of industrial and consumer goods, legislators, educational administrators and insurance companies) are individually capable of generating only form or structural utility for their «products».

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Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия в тексте запрашиваемой информации

Тема: Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия в тексте запрашиваемой информации

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Channels of Marketing
1. Individual consumers and corporate buyers are aware that thousands of goods and services are available through a very large number of diverse channel outlets. What they may not be well aware of is the fact that the channel structure, or the set of institutions, agencies, and establishments through which the product must move to get to them, can be amazingly complex.
2. Usually, institutions specializing in manufacturing, wholesaling, retailing, and many other areas join forces in marketing channel arrangements to make possible the delivery of goods to industrial users or customers and to final consumers. The same is true for the marketing of services. For example, in the case of health care delivery, hospitals, laboratories, insurance companies, and drugstores combine efforts in an organized channel arrangement to ensure the delivery of a critical service.
3. Therefore, marketing channels can be viewed as sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. Not only do marketing channels satisfy demand by supplying goods and services at the right place, quantity, quality, and price, but they also stimulate demand through the promotional activities of the units (e.g., retailers, manufacturers’ representatives, sales offices, and wholesalers) comprising them.
4. The major focus of marketing channel management is on delivery. Producers of goods (including manufacturers of industrial and consumer goods, legislators, educational administrators and insurance companies) are individually capable of generating only form or structural utility for their «products».

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Изучающее чтение с элементами аннотирования

Тема: Изучающее чтение с элементами аннотирования

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Channels of Marketing
1. Individual consumers and corporate buyers are aware that thousands of goods and services are available through a very large number of diverse channel outlets. What they may not be well aware of is the fact that the channel structure, or the set of institutions, agencies, and establishments through which the product must move to get to them, can be amazingly complex.
2. Usually, institutions specializing in manufacturing, wholesaling, retailing, and many other areas join forces in marketing channel arrangements to make possible the delivery of goods to industrial users or customers and to final consumers. The same is true for the marketing of services. For example, in the case of health care delivery, hospitals, laboratories, insurance companies, and drugstores combine efforts in an organized channel arrangement to ensure the delivery of a critical service.
3. Therefore, marketing channels can be viewed as sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. Not only do marketing channels satisfy demand by supplying goods and services at the right place, quantity, quality, and price, but they also stimulate demand through the promotional activities of the units (e.g., retailers, manufacturers’ representatives, sales offices, and wholesalers) comprising them.
4. The major focus of marketing channel management is on delivery. Producers of goods (including manufacturers of industrial and consumer goods, legislators, educational administrators and insurance companies) are individually capable of generating only form or structural utility for their «products».

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Изучающее чтение с элементами анализа информации

Тема: Изучающее чтение с элементами анализа информации

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Channels of Marketing
1. Individual consumers and corporate buyers are aware that thousands of goods and services are available through a very large number of diverse channel outlets. What they may not be well aware of is the fact that the channel structure, or the set of institutions, agencies, and establishments through which the product must move to get to them, can be amazingly complex.
2. Usually, institutions specializing in manufacturing, wholesaling, retailing, and many other areas join forces in marketing channel arrangements to make possible the delivery of goods to industrial users or customers and to final consumers. The same is true for the marketing of services. For example, in the case of health care delivery, hospitals, laboratories, insurance companies, and drugstores combine efforts in an organized channel arrangement to ensure the delivery of a critical service.
3. Therefore, marketing channels can be viewed as sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. Not only do marketing channels satisfy demand by supplying goods and services at the right place, quantity, quality, and price, but they also stimulate demand through the promotional activities of the units (e.g., retailers, manufacturers’ representatives, sales offices, and wholesalers) comprising them.
4. The major focus of marketing channel management is on delivery. Producers of goods (including manufacturers of industrial and consumer goods, legislators, educational administrators and insurance companies) are individually capable of generating only form or structural utility for their «products».

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Термины (Дефиниции)

Тема: Термины (Дефиниции)

The desire of customers for goods or services which they want to buy or use is a …

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Профессиональная лексика

Тема: Профессиональная лексика

All forms of capital ______ in the long run.

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