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Профессиональная лексика

Тема: Профессиональная лексика

If you can’t pay the whole sum of money for the product immediately you can use a ______ payment.

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Профессиональная лексика

Тема: Профессиональная лексика

We have to _______ on water during the dry season.

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Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия в тексте запрашиваемой информации

Тема: Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия в тексте запрашиваемой информации

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Planned Economies
1. Planned economies are sometimes called «command economies» because the state commands the use of resources that are used to produce goods and services as it owns factories, land and natural resources. Planned economies are economies with a large amount of central planning and direction, when the government takes all the decisions; the government decides production and consumption. Planning of this kind is obviously very difficult and the result is that there is no society, which is completely a command economy. The actual system employed varies from state to state, but command or planned economies have a number of common features.
2. Firstly, the state decides precisely what the nation is to produce. It usually plans five years ahead. It is the intention of the planners that there should be enough goods and services for all. Planners are afraid to produce goods and services unless they are sure substantial amounts will be purchased. This leads to delays and queues for some products.
3. Secondly, industries are asked to comply with these plans and each industry and factory is set a production target to meet. If each factory and farm meets its target, then the state will meet its targets as set out in the five-year plans. You could think of the factory and farm targets to be objectives, which, if met, allow the nation’s overall aim to be reached.
4. A major problem faced by command or planned economies is that of deciding what to produce. Command economies tend to be slow when responding to changes in people’s tastes and fashions. Planners are likely to underproduce some items as they cannot predict changes in demand. Equally, some products, which consumers regard as obsolete and unattractive, may be overproduced.

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Изучающее чтение с выделением главных компонентов содержания текста

Тема: Изучающее чтение с выделением главных компонентов содержания текста

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Planned Economies
1. Planned economies are sometimes called «command economies» because the state commands the use of resources that are used to produce goods and services as it owns factories, land and natural resources. Planned economies are economies with a large amount of central planning and direction, when the government takes all the decisions; the government decides production and consumption. Planning of this kind is obviously very difficult and the result is that there is no society, which is completely a command economy. The actual system employed varies from state to state, but command or planned economies have a number of common features.
2. Firstly, the state decides precisely what the nation is to produce. It usually plans five years ahead. It is the intention of the planners that there should be enough goods and services for all. Planners are afraid to produce goods and services unless they are sure substantial amounts will be purchased. This leads to delays and queues for some products.
3. Secondly, industries are asked to comply with these plans and each industry and factory is set a production target to meet. If each factory and farm meets its target, then the state will meet its targets as set out in the five-year plans. You could think of the factory and farm targets to be objectives, which, if met, allow the nation’s overall aim to be reached.
4. A major problem faced by command or planned economies is that of deciding what to produce. Command economies tend to be slow when responding to changes in people’s tastes and fashions. Planners are likely to underproduce some items as they cannot predict changes in demand. Equally, some products, which consumers regard as obsolete and unattractive, may be overproduced.

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Изучающее чтение с элементами аннотирования

Тема: Изучающее чтение с элементами аннотирования

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Planned Economies
1. Planned economies are sometimes called «command economies» because the state commands the use of resources that are used to produce goods and services as it owns factories, land and natural resources. Planned economies are economies with a large amount of central planning and direction, when the government takes all the decisions; the government decides production and consumption. Planning of this kind is obviously very difficult and the result is that there is no society, which is completely a command economy. The actual system employed varies from state to state, but command or planned economies have a number of common features.
2. Firstly, the state decides precisely what the nation is to produce. It usually plans five years ahead. It is the intention of the planners that there should be enough goods and services for all. Planners are afraid to produce goods and services unless they are sure substantial amounts will be purchased. This leads to delays and queues for some products.
3. Secondly, industries are asked to comply with these plans and each industry and factory is set a production target to meet. If each factory and farm meets its target, then the state will meet its targets as set out in the five-year plans. You could think of the factory and farm targets to be objectives, which, if met, allow the nation’s overall aim to be reached.
4. A major problem faced by command or planned economies is that of deciding what to produce. Command economies tend to be slow when responding to changes in people’s tastes and fashions. Planners are likely to underproduce some items as they cannot predict changes in demand. Equally, some products, which consumers regard as obsolete and unattractive, may be overproduced.

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Изучающее чтение с элементами анализа информации

Тема: Изучающее чтение с элементами анализа информации

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Planned Economies
1. Planned economies are sometimes called «command economies» because the state commands the use of resources that are used to produce goods and services as it owns factories, land and natural resources. Planned economies are economies with a large amount of central planning and direction, when the government takes all the decisions; the government decides production and consumption. Planning of this kind is obviously very difficult and the result is that there is no society, which is completely a command economy. The actual system employed varies from state to state, but command or planned economies have a number of common features.
2. Firstly, the state decides precisely what the nation is to produce. It usually plans five years ahead. It is the intention of the planners that there should be enough goods and services for all. Planners are afraid to produce goods and services unless they are sure substantial amounts will be purchased. This leads to delays and queues for some products.
3. Secondly, industries are asked to comply with these plans and each industry and factory is set a production target to meet. If each factory and farm meets its target, then the state will meet its targets as set out in the five-year plans. You could think of the factory and farm targets to be objectives, which, if met, allow the nation’s overall aim to be reached.
4. A major problem faced by command or planned economies is that of deciding what to produce. Command economies tend to be slow when responding to changes in people’s tastes and fashions. Planners are likely to underproduce some items as they cannot predict changes in demand. Equally, some products, which consumers regard as obsolete and unattractive, may be overproduced.

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Термины (Дефиниции)

Тема: Термины (Дефиниции)

Selling the same goods for a lower price abroad than at home is …

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Изучающее чтение с выделением главных компонентов содержания текста

Тема: Изучающее чтение с выделением главных компонентов содержания текста

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Mixed economies
1. A mixed economy contains elements of both market and planned economies. At one extreme we have a command economy, which does not allow individuals to make economic decisions, at the other extreme we have a free market, where individuals exercise considerable economic freedom of choice without any government restrictions. Between these two extremes lies a mixed economy.
2. In mixed economies some resources are controlled by the government whilst others are used in response to the demands of consumers. Technically, all the economies of the world are mixed. Some countries are nearer to command economies, while others are closer to free market economies.
3. The aim of mixed economies is to avoid the disadvantages of both systems while enjoying the benefits that they both offer. So, in a mixed economy the government and the private sector interact in solving economic problems. The state controls the share of the output through taxation and transfer payments and intervenes to supply essential items such as health, education and defence, while private firms produce cars, furniture, electrical items and similar, less essential products.
4. The UK is a country with mixed economy. Some services are provided by the state (for example, health care and defence) whilst a range of privately owned businesses offer other goods and services.

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Изучающее чтение с элементами аннотирования

Тема: Изучающее чтение с элементами аннотирования

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Mixed economies
1. A mixed economy contains elements of both market and planned economies. At one extreme we have a command economy, which does not allow individuals to make economic decisions, at the other extreme we have a free market, where individuals exercise considerable economic freedom of choice without any government restrictions. Between these two extremes lies a mixed economy.
2. In mixed economies some resources are controlled by the government whilst others are used in response to the demands of consumers. Technically, all the economies of the world are mixed. Some countries are nearer to command economies, while others are closer to free market economies.
3. The aim of mixed economies is to avoid the disadvantages of both systems while enjoying the benefits that they both offer. So, in a mixed economy the government and the private sector interact in solving economic problems. The state controls the share of the output through taxation and transfer payments and intervenes to supply essential items such as health, education and defence, while private firms produce cars, furniture, electrical items and similar, less essential products.
4. The UK is a country with mixed economy. Some services are provided by the state (for example, health care and defence) whilst a range of privately owned businesses offer other goods and services.

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Изучающее чтение с элементами анализа информации

Тема: Изучающее чтение с элементами анализа информации

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Mixed economies
1. A mixed economy contains elements of both market and planned economies. At one extreme we have a command economy, which does not allow individuals to make economic decisions, at the other extreme we have a free market, where individuals exercise considerable economic freedom of choice without any government restrictions. Between these two extremes lies a mixed economy.
2. In mixed economies some resources are controlled by the government whilst others are used in response to the demands of consumers. Technically, all the economies of the world are mixed. Some countries are nearer to command economies, while others are closer to free market economies.
3. The aim of mixed economies is to avoid the disadvantages of both systems while enjoying the benefits that they both offer. So, in a mixed economy the government and the private sector interact in solving economic problems. The state controls the share of the output through taxation and transfer payments and intervenes to supply essential items such as health, education and defence, while private firms produce cars, furniture, electrical items and similar, less essential products.
4. The UK is a country with mixed economy. Some services are provided by the state (for example, health care and defence) whilst a range of privately owned businesses offer other goods and services.

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Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия в тексте запрашиваемой информации

Тема: Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия в тексте запрашиваемой информации

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Mixed economies
1. A mixed economy contains elements of both market and planned economies. At one extreme we have a command economy, which does not allow individuals to make economic decisions, at the other extreme we have a free market, where individuals exercise considerable economic freedom of choice without any government restrictions. Between these two extremes lies a mixed economy.
2. In mixed economies some resources are controlled by the government whilst others are used in response to the demands of consumers. Technically, all the economies of the world are mixed. Some countries are nearer to command economies, while others are closer to free market economies.
3. The aim of mixed economies is to avoid the disadvantages of both systems while enjoying the benefits that they both offer. So, in a mixed economy the government and the private sector interact in solving economic problems. The state controls the share of the output through taxation and transfer payments and intervenes to supply essential items such as health, education and defence, while private firms produce cars, furniture, electrical items and similar, less essential products.
4. The UK is a country with mixed economy. Some services are provided by the state (for example, health care and defence) whilst a range of privately owned businesses offer other goods and services.

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Термины (Дефиниции)

Тема: Термины (Дефиниции)

A situation in which there is not enough of something that people need is a …

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Профессиональная лексика

Тема: Профессиональная лексика

The ______ of the loan is spread over 25 years.

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Термины (Дефиниции)

Тема: Термины (Дефиниции)

Money paid by a government to reduce the costs of producing goods so that their prices can be kept low is a …

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Изучающее чтение с выделением главных компонентов содержания текста

Тема: Изучающее чтение с выделением главных компонентов содержания текста

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Neoclassical Economics
1. The most remarkable feature of neoclassical economics is that it reduces many broad categories of market phenomena to considerations of individual choice and, in this way, suggests that the science of economics can be firmly grounded on the basic individual act of subjectively choosing among alternatives.
2. Neoclassical economics began with the so-called marginalist revolution in value theory that emerged toward the end of the nineteenth century. Strictly speaking, neoclassical economics is not a school of thought (in the sense of a well-defined group of economists following a single great master) but more a loose amalgam of subschools of thought, each revolving around such acknowledged masters as Alfred Marshall in England, Leon Walras in France, and Carl Menger in Austria.
3. In England there was established the Cambridge school – a variant of neoclassical economics that stressed continuity with the past achievements of the classical school. In France, the general equilibrium school was founded in 1874. This subschool investigated the mathematical conditions under which all markets could be in equilibrium simultaneously. The Austrian subschool focused on the essential problems of economic organization.
4. What these subschools have in common is the importance they attach to explaining the coordinating features of market processes in terms of plans and subjective evaluations carried out by individuals in the market subject to the constraints of technological knowledge, social custom and practice, and scarcity of resources.

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